Technically, yes, they can be. If something is printed, technically it is published. However, publishing involves more than just printing. If you have something published, it’s usually something printed within a specific timeframe, specific quanities, and recurs according to a schedule, and is typically bound in some format. If you have something printed, you can walk in to a Staples or FedEx-Kinkos and have your file(s) ready on a thumb (flash) drive or upload from a cloud storage, and request (or self-print) a set of copies.
An example of printing would be 100 copies of a promotional flier for local businesses or residents to introduce your business. An example of publishing would be a newspaper, magazine or periodical, or a book/novel.